3 Steps to Buy and Store Bitcoins Anonymously – Reason.com

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to ethereum [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to privacycoins [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to ethtrader [link] [comments]

Fifty Years of Cypherpunk: History, Personalities, And Spread of its ideas

In this review, we tell how the ideas of cypherpunk were born, how they influenced cryptocurrencies, and modern technologies, who formed the basis and why its popularity these days has grown again.

From the early days to today: the chronology of key events of the cypherpunk

In the early 1970s, James Ellis of the UK Government Communications Center put forward the concept of public-key cryptography. In the early 1980s, small groups of hackers, mathematicians and cryptographers began working on the realization of this idea. One of them was an American cryptographer, Ph.D. David Chaum, who is sometimes called the godfather of cypherpunk. This new culture has proclaimed computer technology as a means of destroying state power and centralized management systems.Key figure among the cypherpunk of the 80s — Intel specialist Timothy C. May. His dream was to create a global system that allows anonymous exchange of information. He created the concept of the BlackNet system. In September 1988, May wrote The Crypto-Anarchist Manifesto: people themselves, without politicians, manage their lives, use cryptography, use digital currencies, and other decentralized tools.In 1989, David Chaum founded DigiCash an eCash digital money system with its CyberBucks and with the blind digital signature technology.Since 1992, Timothy May, John Gilmore (Electronic Frontier Foundation), and Eric Hughes (University of California) have begun holding secret meetings and regular PGP-encrypted mailing through anonymous remailer servers. And finally, in 1993 Eric Hughes published a fundamental document of the movement — А Cypherpunk's Manifesto. The importance of confidentiality, anonymous transactions, cryptographic protection — all these ideas were subsequently implemented in cryptocurrencies.The term "cypherpunk" was first used by hacker and programmer Jude Milhon to a group of crypto-anarchists.In 1995, Julian Assange, the creator of WikiLeaks, published his first post in cypherpunk mailing.In 1996, John Young and Deborah Natsios created the Cryptome, which published data related to security, privacy, freedom, cryptography. It is here that subsequently will be published data from the famous Edward Snowden.In 1997, cryptographer Dr. Adam Back (you know him as CEO of Blockstream) created Hashcash, a distributed anti-spam mechanism.In 1998, computer engineer Wei Dai published two concepts for creating a b-money digital payment system:
In April 2001, Bram Cohen developed the BitTorrent protocol and application.In 2002, Paul Syverson, Roger Dingledine and Nick Mathewson presented the alpha version of the anonymity network named TOR Project.In 2004, cypherpunk Hal Finney created the Reusable Proof of Work (RPoW) algorithm. It was based on Adam Back's Hashcash but its drawback was centralization.In 2005, cryptographer Nick Szabo, who developed the concept of smart contracts in the 1990s, announced the creation of Bit Gold — a digital collectible and investment item.In October 2008, legendary Satoshi Nakamoto created the manifesto “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”, which refers to the works of the cypherpunk classics Adam Back and Wei Dai.In 2011, Ross William Ulbricht aka Dread Pirate Roberts created the Silk Road, the first major market for illegal goods and services on the darknet.In 2016, Julian Assange released the book "Cypherpunks: Freedom and the future of the Internet."At the beginning of 2018, Pavel Durov, the creator of Telegram, announced the launch of the TON multi-blockchain platform and mentioned his plans to launch TON ICO.In 2019, the Tor Project‌ introduced an open anti-censorship group.

Cypherpunk 2020

Plenty of services, products, and technologies were inspired by cypherpunk: Cryptocurrencies, HD (Hierarchical Deterministic) crypto wallets, Coin Mixers, ECDHM addresses, Privacy Coins. The ideas of distribution and anonymity were also implemented in the torrents and VPN. You can see the embodiment of cybersecurity ideas in the electronic signatures and protected messengers (Telegram, Signal, and many others).Why there were so many talks about cypherpunk this spring? In April 2020, Reddit users suggested that the letter from the famous cypherpunks mailing dated September 19, 1999, was written by Satoshi Nakamoto himself (or someone close to him). This letter is about the functioning of ecash. Anonymous (supposed Satoshi) talks about the "public double-spending database" and Wei Dai's b-money as a possible foundation for ecash.In addition, researchers of the mystery "Who is Satoshi Nakamoto?" periodically make some noise and discover the next "secret" about one or another legendary cypherpunks. So, in May 2020, Adam Back wrote in response to videos and new hype discussions that, despite some coincidences, he is not Satoshi.Other heroes of the scene are not idle too: in April 2020, David Chaum received $9.7 million during the presale of the confidential coin xx, created to encourage venture investors.

Conclusion

As you can see from the Satoshi Nakamoto's mentions and from the stories of DigiCash, Hashcash, RPoW, Bit Gold, the movement of cypherpunk influenced a lot the emergence of cryptocurrencies. As governments and corporations restrict freedom and interfere with confidentiality, cypherpunk ideas will periodically rise in popularity. And this confrontation will not end in the coming decades.
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to bitcoin_uncensored [link] [comments]

Law Enforcement and Regulators Agree: Bitcoin Not Useful for Terrorists, Already Regulated Appropriately

Law Enforcement and Regulators Agree: Bitcoin Not Useful for Terrorists, Already Regulated Appropriately submitted by desantis to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

this is why all cryptocurrencies are crashing

Edit I admit defeat
In case you didn't know, AlphaBay, the largest darknet market, went offline a few days back. Many believe it is an exit scam.
The resulting panic and chaos, however, is not the cause for the crashage.
The alphabay admins are pretty damn smart. They planned this exit scam three months in advance, slowly siphoning all of the market's cold wallet funds out of BTC/XMR and into pretty much every coin with a reasonably liquid exchange. This was the cause of the strong and steady climb in price across pretty much the entire crypto space -- except for BTC -- that started in mid May.
Now that they have pulled the plug, they are unwinding those positions.
Perpetrating their heist in BTC would leave them vulnerable to chain analysis, and the amount they've made off with is so damn huge that exchanging it out of XMR to BTC would have blown their cover -- XMR may have bulletproof anonymity, but if they didn't want to hold their loot in the form of XMR until retirement they'd get caught eventually moving such a large amount through an exchange.
So instead, they basically used the entire cryptocurrency space as one enormous mixer. Split up the loot across 200-some altcoins, make sure you cash out to separate wallets (one or more per coin) and never comingle the proceeds, and you have a reasonable chance of getting away.
So yeah. It sucks.
(and then there's the whole stupid ICO thing, great camouflage)
Edit: further insight here which I think corroborates, although I would argue that the fee spike was worsened by the fact that the cold wallets were getting drained to exchanges in a massive number of tiny transactions. And when you're stealing the money fees don't seem to matter as much.
Edit: the fact that BTC is crashing along with the alts leads me to conclude that they are not just dumping their RandomCoin positions for BTC, but also turning around and dumping that BTC for fiat or goods. Perhaps they foresaw that their stunt -- and the brief though jarring loss of the main source of demand for crypto -- would crash the entire crypto space.
submitted by ballsphincter to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Bitcoin 2017 a Comprehensive Timeline

Some of the most notable news and events over the past year:
Jan 3:
Jan 10:
Jan 17:
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submitted by BitcoinChronicler to btc [link] [comments]

[Podcast] Federal Prosecutor Kathryn Haun On How Criminals Use Bitcoin -- And How She Catches Them

http://www.forbes.com/podcasts/unchained/#3e067f03389e
Direct link didn't work for me, it's

Episode 12 | NOV 1, 2016 | 44:00

Kathryn Haun put away the DEA and Secret Service agents who tried to make off with more than $800,000 in stolen bitcoin while investigating the darknet Silk Road marketplace. She talks about how the blockchain technology underlying Bitcoin made it possible to uncover their theft, why she believes blockchain will create a lot of good, and what she does when the very people behind tumblers and mixers -- technology that makes her work more difficult -- turn to her when they are the victims of crimes. Along the way, we learn about the habits of cryptocurrency criminals and get a fascinating view into the world of "breeder documents."
I just discovered this podcast and listened to this episode in the car. Monero isn't mentioned, but ZCash is, which doesn't matter because it's exchangeable in this case. They just treat it as an untraceable, private currency from a prosecutor's perspective. (You could even say they were talking about Monenro but calling it ZCash, but I don't want this post to be about whether ZCash is a scam or not). They also mention tumbling services and how they've gotten better, and there are some really nice insights into what's possible with blockchain / digital tracing. For instance, in the case of the stolen bitcoin by two agents, they were first treating this as one case. Because one of them was obfuscating his transactions by transferring funds between wallets and using Tor (Secret Service guy), the other one was more or less just cashing out directly.
The last third is about other blockchain related crimes and technology, like having birth certificates in a blockchain to make them more secure. It is 44 minutes long, so maybe it's more like something for your morning commute instead of listening to it now, but it's really worth it!
Edit: Wording, grammar, typos
submitted by amiuhle to Monero [link] [comments]

SR-related Bitcoin seizure?

http://letstalkbitcoin.com/post/53700133097/users-bitcoins-seized-by-dea (xpost from /Bitcoin)
The Drug Enforcement Administration posted an Official Notification that Bitcoin (i.e. property) belonging to Eric Daniel Hughes was seized for forfeiture pursuant to 21 U.S.C. § 881, because the property was used or acquired as a result of a violation of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. §§ 801 et seq.)
...The Bitcoin address referenced in the complaint received a transaction for 11.02btc at 17:10:36 Blockchain time on the date noted as “seized”.
The honeypot scenario seems more likely as the sender-address was not emptied into the “DEA” account. There is one other transaction in the referenced account, for 17.24btc which entered 5/22/13 and is transferred out 5/28/13 - It moves through one intermediary account, is then combined into a block of 200btc and moves through an account that transacts only in 100 or 200btc blocks totaling 10,100btc. Following any one of those 200btc blocks leads you to apparent “mixer” transactions, small amounts of value peeling off of the larger amount at each hop. Taint analysis reveals that nearly 10% of those bitcoins eventually pass through an address responsible for transacting more than 419,000btc since 2012
EDIT: Hughes is probably the SR vendor Casey Jones, see my results in the comments.
EDITEDIT: Hughes is being prosecuted for distribution of Clonazepam among other things.
submitted by gwern to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

Clean Coins

I found a Bitcoin Mixing Service by way of the Hidden Wiki called Clean Coins. I wasn't completely sure about it but I still sent 14.05 BTC (93.85 USD) to be mixed. There are no accounts, but the site issues an account hash with no discernible way to enter it somewhere else. When I try to send the coins to the mixer, I get an internal error. I fear I have now lost my bitcoins. With respect to that, I have a few questions:
  1. Has anybody used this particular service before? I found no discussion on The Hidden Wiki and, being part of the deep web, it doesn't turn up even when searched for with Startpage or DuckDuckGo. Probably not a scam
  2. Is there any way to retrieve the coins? For clarity, I sent them from a certain road, hence the throwaway. I wanted to withdraw my coins and send them back to my BTC exchange, without having them come directly from the Silk Road.
  3. Is mixing the coins necessary when withdrawing from sites like the Silk Road? I will most likely be using Bitcoin Fog from now on, simply so I don't have to worry about my money disappearing when I exit Tor. No, it's not necessary
Edit: for reference, here is the URL: tblbrxrd7mnimwg5.onion
submitted by clean_coins to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

NB: Каталог onion сайтов

Русскоязычные ресурсы, или где есть ссылки на русскоязычные ресурсы в TOR.
Каталоги, wiki, поисковики:
http://hss3uro2hsxfogfq.onion/ Поисковик в сети TOR
http://zqktlwi4fecvo6ri.onion — HiddenWiki
http://dirnxxdraygbifgc.onion/ — Каталог онион сайтов
https://ahmia.fi/search/- домен в клирнете, но ищет в tor. По факту каталог с мордой поисковика
http://kpynyvym6xqi7wz2.onion/links.html— Сборник адресов сайтов, в том числе и онион. Много мертвого, но покопаться можно
Торговые площадки и сервисы:
https://blockchainbdgpzk.onion — Зеркало в онион известного онлайн биткоин-кошелька. Дает из под тора регистрировать кошелек и делать переводы. Есть миксер. Интерфейс русифицирован.
http://rusilkusru6f57uw.onion —Russian SilkRoad. Торговая площадка на базе форума.Работает без JavaScript. Для продавцов статус дилера бесплатный, ежемесячных платежей нет, комиссия по факту сделки(платит продавец или покупатель по договоренности). Есть автоматический прием платежей. Моментальные магазины есть.
http://r2d2akbw3jpt4zbf.onion —R2D2. Торговая площадка на базе форума. Раньше регистрация была по инвайтам. Для работы требует включенного в браузере JavaScript. Статус продавца платный + комиссия (платит продавец или покупатель по договоренности). Автоматического приема платежей нет. Моментальных магазинов нет.
http://amberoadychffmyw.onion —Amberoad. Торговая площадка на базе форума. Для работы частично требует включенного в браузере JavaScript. Для продавцов статус дилера платный + комиссия(платит продавец или покупатель по договоренности) + ежемесячные платежи. Автоматического приема платежей нет. Моментальных магазинов нет.
http://www.lwplxqzvmgu43uff.onion— Runion. До недавнего времени информационный ресурс по безопасности. Сейчас добавили платные услуги по торговле. Написано, что есть автоматическая торговля. Комиссию платит продавец или покупатель по договоренности.
http://malina2ihfyawiau.onion —Malina. Торговая площадка на базе форума. Для работы требует включенного в браузере JavaScript. Статус продавца платный + комиссия (платит продавец или покупатель по договоренности). Автоматического приема платежей нет. Моментальных магазинов нет.
Разное:
http://rospravovkdvaobr.onion —Росправосудие. Зеркало известного сайта в онионе.
http://ajyltarwd6xmvhlu.onion —Русский чат. Тематика не указана.
http://xz5sdhbwrm4vvkxh.onion —Киберберкут в онионе.
Englisn onion
Introduction points, forums, links, search engines, information, chat, personal blogs”normal sites”
The Hidden Wiki http://zqktlwi4fecvo6ri.onion/wiki/index.php/Main_Page
The Uncensored Hidden wiki http://uhwikih256ynt57t.onion/wiki/index.php/Main_Page
Vault 43 (useful) http://vault43z5vxy3vn3.onion/
Imperial Library of TOR http://xfmro77i3lixucja.onion/
Yet another tor directory http://bdpuqvsqmphctrcs.onion/
Grams (search) http://grams7enufi7jmdl.onion/
The Hub (forum) http://thehub7dnl5nmcz5.onion/
Agora Forum http://lacbzxobeprssrfx.onion/
Onion soup (links n stuff) http://soupksx6vqh3ydda.onion/
TORUM (forum) http://torum4kqr55yqui6.onion/
Overchan (alittle of everything it seems) http://oniichanylo2tsi4.onion/
TORCH (search) http://xmh57jrzrnw6insl.onion/
French IRC Tor http://fitwebwmjekqsyrw.onion/
TORsearch http://kbhpodhnfxl3clb4.onion/
Yacy (search) http://yacy2tp5a2dhywmx.onion/
OnionDir (links) http://dirnxxdraygbifgc.onion/
Burnout (links) http://burnoutxf6o2yvsw.onion/
TOR Hidden Service (search) http://msydqstlz2kzerdg.onion/search/
Q&A(like yahoo answers) http://pequ3i77q5l4w4sw.onion/
Benji’s Blog http://sonntag6ej43fv2d.onion/en
Secret Stash (blog) http://dn4hcr3qhlpaiygr.onion/
Cruel Onion forum (forum for “bad* things) http://cruel2ijkqggizy5.onion/forum/
The Plague (links and things) http://zseijor556d5t4yf.onion/
Dark News (forum) http://xhb4vpn4a67sug7t.onion/
Spreadit (looks alittle like reddit) http://jdl3nf2hr3ehzyoc.onion/
Wizardry & Steamwork (search) http://kaarvixjxfdy2wv2.onion/
Myles Braithwaite http://gvvsa367g2zkzjj3.onion/
TOR links http://torlinkbgs6aabns.onion/
Nudist Paradise (site for nudists) http://qvchmzewlf4efhcw.onion/
DeepWeb Ministries (religios site) http://hxnibog5m2ocjeef.onion/
SIN Strategic INtelligence Network (be prepared for any situation) http://4iahqcjrtmxwofr6.onion/
Add any link (links) http://vizpz65utiopch7t.onion/
Shadow Life (news) http://shadow7jnzxjkvpz.onion/
Usenet file search http://wbyi72yt6gitdcqd.onion/
Liberty blog (free blogs) http://crylibertytwta4s.onion/
Intel Exchange (forum) http://rrcc5uuudhh4oz3c.onion/
GUROChan (message board) http://gurochanocizhuhg.onion/
Maxima Culpa (virtual confessions) http://nsmgu2mglfj7za6s.onion/
Onion DIR (links) http://chl7b5p6rr64po3s.onion/
Leonhard Weese (personal blog) http://liongrasr5uy5roo.onion/
YHIMA (links) http://ogbinmlotgjwgkeo.onion/
Sanctioned Suicide (forum) http://suicideocymrgxq7.onion/
anon confessions http://confessx3gx46lwg.onion/
OnionNet (links news etc) http://ubbchzof2pxs4swi.onion/
Surveilance Law http://7vrl523532rjjznj.onion/
BLue Onion (books) http://blue3237xytrz5rk.onion/blueonion/
The Hidden Forum http://ewd5a7hnvc4necnf.onion/index.php
SImple Store http://dharyyzdhok5eudi.onion/store/
Bad Ideas Forum http://7x5rg44gkhtovwjt.onion/forum/index.php
FUD (discussion board) http://bssjumzkbj3vlhiy.onion/
Hidden links http://hidhost5gk6w7ahf.onion/hidlinks/links.php
Facebook on tor? https://facebookcorewwwi.onion/
FBI Chan http://fbichanc6yfagl4l.onion/
Readers Club http://c3jemx2ube5v5zpg.onion/
Weblog http://6e3i6bqjgnmtn3fu.onion/
Marketplaces and stores
EasyCoin – Bitcoin Wallet with free Bitcoin Mixer. http://easycoinsayj7p5l.onion/
WeBuyBitcoins – Sell your Bitcoins for Cash, PP and more. http://jzn5w5pac26sqef4.onion/
OnionWallet – Anonymous Bitcoin Wallet and Bitcoin Laundry. http://ow24et3tetp6tvmk.onion/
EuCanna – ‘First Class Cannabis Healthcare’ http://rso4hutlefirefqp.onion/
Peoples Drug Store – The Darkweb’s Best Drug Supplier! http://newpdsuslmzqazvr.onion/
Smokeables – Finest Organic Cannabis shipped from the USA. http://smoker32pk4qt3mx.onion/
CannabisUK – UK Wholesale Cannabis Supplier. http://fzqnrlcvhkgbdwx5.onion/
DeDope – German Weed and Hash shop. (Bitcoin) http://kbvbh4kdddiha2ht.onion/
BitPharma – EU vendor for cocaine, speed, mdma, psychedelics. http://s5q54hfww56ov2xc.onion/
Brainmagic – Best psychedelics on the darknet. http://ll6lardicrvrljvq.onion/
NLGrowers – Coffee Shop grade Cannabis from the netherlands. http://25ffhnaechrbzwf3.onion/
Kamagra for Bitcoin – Same as Viagra but cheaper! http://k4btcoezc5tlxyaf.onion/
Mobile Store – unlocked iphones and other smartphones. http://mobil7rab6nuf7vx.onion/
UK Guns and Ammo – Selling Guns and Ammo from the UK. http://tuu66yxvrnn3of7l.onion/
Rent-A-Hacker – Hacking, DDOS, Social Engeneering etc. http://2ogmrlfzdthnwkez.onion/
Onion Identity Services – Selling Passports and ID-Cards. http://abbujjh5vqtq77wg.onion/
HQER – High quality euro bills replicas / counterfeits. http://y3fpieiezy2sin4a.onion/
USD Counterfeits – High quality USD counterfeits. http://qkj4drtgvpm7eecl.onion/
USA Citizenship – Get a real USA passport. http://xfnwyig7olypdq5r.onion/
Apples4Bitcoin – Cheap Apple products for Bitcoin. http://tfwdi3izigxllure.onion/
ccPal – CCs, CVV2s, Ebay, Paypals and more. http://3dbr5t4pygahedms.onion/
EuroGuns – Your #1 european arms dealer. http://2kka4f23pcxgqkpv.onion/
UK Passports – Original UK Passports. http://vfqnd6mieccqyiit.onion/
USfakeIDs – High quality USA Fake Drivers Licenses. http://en35tuzqmn4lofbk.onion/
Tech, technology, computers, hackers for hire, hacking/anarchy related materials
MacLemon (security, news, links) http://fzybdgczph7xfdnr.onion/
TOR Status – Tor network status http://jlve2y45zacpbz6s.onion/
TorPGP public key server http://torpgp3ujaysucll.onion/
Altera Praxis (not sure what this is tbh) http://ncivdawfxihoh7sj.onion/about.html
keybase (some sort of hackestalker tool idk) http://fncuwbiisyh6ak3i.onion/
Tor Web Devolper (for hire) http://qizriixqwmeq4p5b.onion/
Web Programmer (for hire) http://kobrabd77ppgjd2r.onion/
Ozy’s Hacking Service (hacker for hire) http://ozy7mnciacbc5idc.onion/
Pioopioo’s Services (hacker for hire) http://rowtogxp2akwem6n.onion/
Hacker place http://hackerw6dcplg3ej.onion/
Parazite (anarchy info mainly) http://kpynyvym6xqi7wz2.onion/
DNS support forum http://mj6vjwhtyahcj6fx.onion/
BitMessage mail gateway http://bitmailendavkbec.onion/
Keys Open Doors http://wdnqg3ehh3hvalpe.onion/
Hidden Service howto http://nfokjgfj3hxs4nwu.onion/
JRAT (java remote administration tool) http://jratoc334zo7zgis.onion/
FILTH (fuck i love to hack) http://om2ak3coziov3dbc.onion/forum/index.php
Onion Domains & MD5sums http://xlmvhk3rpdux26dz.onion/
Soylent News http://skgmctqnhyvfava3.onion/
Bluish Coder http://mh7mkfvezts5j6yu.onion/
Cable Viewer (idk what this is but its techy) http://leakager742hufco.onion/
Xerbot http://xfthw4bq7lx2y726.onion/
Hack Canada http://hackcanl2o4lvmnv.onion/
Imperial anarchist despotism http://rgeo5wj7gneidzh3.onion/
Directory Listing Denied (anon web ftp) http://wtutoxfznz45gf6c.onion/
Anarplex (some kind of computer anarchy) http://y5fmhyqdr6r7ddws.onion/
GhostDeveloper (freelance programmer) http://develggxuazrcokn.onion/
SKS Onion key server http://lbnugoq5na3mzkgv.onion/index.html
GNUPG http://ic6au7wa3f6naxjq.onion/
Cat facts http://2v7ibl5u4pbemwiz.onion/
Chess (game) http://theches3nacocgsc.onion/
Necro town (links n stuff) http://nekrooxwwskakacj.onion/
Encryption Password Generator http://pwgenmwi7eqsys76.onion/
rows.io jabber http://yz6yiv2hxyagvwy6.onion/
M5S leaks http://33pvcdba2nm3afnj.onion/
A cgi proxy http://x5yd2gfthlfgdqjg.onion/
FIT French IRC TOR http://fit2v7z4plpfyh2h.onion/
The Linux Documentation Project http://3c2rvufmbcggnqi6.onion/
Crypto Party http://cpartywvpihlabsy.onion/
Hive Archives http://thehivemwon6a5mp.onion/
txtorcon (python contril library for tor) http://timaq4ygg2iegci7.onion/
Rhodium (science stuff) http://rhodiumio4b7b4rm.onion/
Hackerspace Prague http://pmwdzvbyvnmwobk5.onion/
Political, activists, groups, journalism, whistle blowing etc
Youth Rage forum http://neyigf7eragkp5nq.onion/forum/
Associated Whistleblowers http://w6csjytbrl273che.onion/#/
Community X recruitment http://gp5tycij54ri7xcz.onion/
Code Green (ethical hacktivism) http://pyl7a4ccwgpxm6rd.onion/
Infodio Leaks http://ymi7h25hgp3bj63v.onion/#/
Wiki Leaks http://zbnnr7qzaxlk5tms.onion/
Zwitterion’s Domain http://3il6wiev2pnk7dat.onion/
Secure wildlife whistle blowing http://ppdz5djzpo3w5k2z.onion/#/
Freedom of the press foundation http://freepress3xxs3hk.onion/
the loli advocacy server http://lolikaastbgo5dtk.onion/
Global Leaks http://h73hx2munq7q465s.onion/#/
Tactical Technology http://hrkdpwrkh3lbow2l.onion/
Fund the islamic struggle http://teir4baj5mpvkg5n.onion/
Internet Governance Transparency http://k52lcjc5fws3jbqf.onion/
We fight censorship http://3kyl4i7bfdgwelmf.onion/
Anon Insiders http://imtrjn3qe2tzh5ae.onion/
Map Mos Maiorum (refugee help) http://iuektur6bicvfwcq.onion/ushahidi/
wiki leaks http://jwgkxry7xjeaeg5d.onion/
Anonymity, Security
includes secure email, chat, etc Anonet wiki http://xz2rtmpjjwvdw44p.onion/
Secure Messaging http://sms4tor3vcr2geip.onion/
MailTor http://mailtoralnhyol5v.onion/src/login.php
Lelantos email http://lelantoss7bcnwbv.onion/
Onion Mail http://p6x47b547s2fkmj3.onion/
JitJat (messaging) http://jitjatxmemcaaadp.onion/login.php
TOR PasteBin http://postits4tga4cqts.onion/
RetroShare chat server http://chat7zlxojqcf3nv.onion/
ProtectTOR55 http://protector55z5s7j.onion/
Zerobin http://zerobinqmdqd236y.onion/
TOR chat roulette http://tetatl6umgbmtv27.onion/
SIGAINT (email) http://sigaintevyh2rzvw.onion/
Offshore mail server http://inocncymyac2mufx.onion/
web/irc chat thing http://6ejbuiwnp77gu67h.onion/
FreeFor (chat) http://tns7i5gucaaussz4.onion/
Volatile (chat n stuff) http://vola7ileiax4ueow.onion/
Hosting, web, file, image
Onionweb File Hosting (100mb limit) http://3fnhfsfc2bpzdste.onion/
Hidden Hosting http://7zzohostingx4mes.onion/
Free Hosting links http://a5ok374pjcq7bsyp.onion/
Darknet services http://darknet4x3hcv5zp.onion/
Infernet Dark Hosting http://a5ok374pjcq7bsyp.onion/
IMG.BI (image hosting) http://imgbifwwqoixh7te.onion/
Secure Drop http://v6gdwmm7ed4oifvd.onion/
CYRUSERV http://cyruservvvklto2l.onion/
Free TOR Hosting http://zuxtem3jcv2fvmgk.onion/
Home Hosting (how to) http://dmru36nvfgtywx47.onion/
Real Hosting http://hosting6iar5zo7c.onion/
TorSafe (file hosting) http://torsafeiwttlkul6.onion/accounts/login/
Real Hosting http://ezuwnhj5j6mtk4xr.onion/
TOR VPS http://torvps7kzis5ujfz.onion/index.php/TorVPS
Kowloon (hosting) http://kowloon5aibdbege.onion/
Onion Pastebin http://pastetorziarobi7.onion/
Popfiles (file hosting) http://popfilesxuru7lsr.onion/
Hidden Hosting http://offshore6gq7ykr7.onion/
Darknet Solutions (hosting and design) http://darknet47je5xwm6.onion/
Onion uploader (file hosting up to 100mb) http://nk3k2rsitogzvk2a.onion/
Media, music, movies, art, cartoons, comics etc*
Skeletor.bit http://okzatvfk2jzgvmf4.onion/
Yay Ponies http://ponieslzi3ivbynd.onion/
HFS (music) http://wuvdsbmbwyjzsgei.onion/
Sea Kitten Palace (torrents) http://wtwfzc6ty2s6x4po.onion/
Manga http://negimarxzov6ca4c.onion/
Comics http://7etxnv26hro7mmuu.onion/
Deep Tune (music) http://tune4xs6mj2evcr6.onion/
TorFlix (movies) http://jl4m7ubpotnu2yos.onion/
No name, not sure if its music or speak but its mp3’s http://xf3fjq4b7j6pswuq.onion/
Gone Things (printable images) http://32ixi6myw3things.onion/
ORVoice (music) http://orvoicemur72h7rx.onion/TO
Index of (music) http://uuxrei5or65anucg.onion/
My little pony http://mlpfimf74svi6y4q.onion/s01/
The audiobook vault http://xmctuxj7dsymumwf.onion/
Разное:
DOXBIN http://doxbinbircrfbqvg.onion/ This is a big list of peoples personal information basicly, seems like a dump for info that hackers might want to retreive at a later date, but also seems like a show off site. Im not sure how to interpret all this
Riseup http://zsolxunfmbfuq7wf.onion/rc/
Thunder’s Place (penis enlargement) http://thundersplv36ecb.onion/
Smart5 (forum, for what idk though) http://smart5ywvuwbmzfd.onion/
German TOR Library (documents, files, on what subject idk) http://pqfja3rzroprkfq6.onion
Dying Breed (forum, idk what for) http://g6o7aurv4c3ixalq.onion/index.php
Hers some random cords. lat/long http://4k2oq3fswx35a72s.onion/
Zyprexa kills http://tdkhrvozivoez5ad.onion/
Cat out of the bag http://vkpriz2cjzymgpsp.onion/
XL33tVill3 (links and idk what) http://tt75atziadj4duff.onion/sindex.html
i really dont know what to say http://rjzdqt4z3z3xo73h.onion/
Solar display http://zgypn3izock2oqny.onion/
GIF files (global intelligence files) http://gkqmy7ioqptiru5o.onion/gifiles/
Hacked http://7o46qra2jkz3k3kx.onion/
GreatDumps http://www.greatobxvv7etokq.onion/?login.do/
International journal of proof of concept or GTFO http://pocgtfo7tu77thrp.onion/
Elize chatbot http://opnju4nyz7wbypme.onion/
Cryptome (im not sure where to put this so its here) http://y6q2mnorhmsfdm3r.onion/
Pastebin http://5aklnwbibkhrtbs6.onion/
submitted by Jayson_Roger to JRHarbor [link] [comments]

A "Load Balancer" on a "Mixing System". Lets think about that for a moment

"Tumbler we never asked for" is such an emotive phrase, post Sheepmarketplace. I prefer "mixer we never asked for".
If you tumble bitcoin, they have to travel a pre-determined route through a bunch of wallets.
how do you split this up across more than one server?
Bitcoin mining involves solving a very difficult calculation to win the mining contract, to create the next blockin the chain.
However, the creation of the block itself could be done by the slowest of laptops - that's updating the balances of the world's bitcoin wallets, and all the maths involved, for 10 minutes or so.
Updating the wallets of a simple mixer used by Silk Road could be done by the same underpowered halfwit laptop.
To imply that two blade servers with a load balancer is required is clearly nonsense. Silk Road admin staff are telling lies to us. However, this doesn't necessarily mean we are being robbed.
Can anyone think why they'd tell us this, when our withdrawals are not showing on the blockchain?
submitted by sheeproadreloaded2 to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

John Kerry On Face the Nation is Tremendously Bullish for Bitcoin in an Evil Way

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=goARQz-SbUg
The West is walking on egg shells.
Putin will not yield Ukraine. Meanwhile, Kerry, acting as a mouthpiece, threatens Russia with sanctions, i.e. financial war, under a high and mighty pretense. Seeing the obvious signs of Western involvement, Putin's blood is boiling.
Putin knows the Western Media sets the frame for the basis of Western power. The Western media thus far has been largely positive on Bitcoin. To the casual viewer, Bitcoin may be misunderstood. But it's at least clear that there is no "War on Bitcoin" like there's a War on Some Drugs.
Be it positive or negative for the people of Ukraine, Putin is considering every option to protect his interests.
Russia, which has just recently taken a hostile stance towards Bitcoin, may begin to eye financial "punishments" of their own for the world reserve currency. It could be eyed as a tactical option, under one scenario that results in what I would call the most bullish environment for cryptocurrencies EVER, leading to growth and price increases that could be even more staggering in height than in 2013.
The West will continue to threaten Russia with sanctions, i.e. financial war. Yet, this isn't the war the West is able to fight.
Kerry may disparage Putin's move into Russia as a show of weakness due to the declining Russian Ruble. Meanwhile, America will continue to operate hundreds of military bases worldwide on a bottomless budget that is completely and utterly dependent on the US Dollar's world reserve status.
The bottom line is this. Putin may not consider a Bitcoin assault as a viable political tactic, unless the West moves to reverse its stance on Bitcoin. If the West cracks down on Bitcoin, Putin will take note.
You see, this is quite possibly the most bullish news of 2014 for any and all cryptocurrencies. It means the West cannot risk giving Russia the perception that they are threatened by Bitcoin. It is so funny! HA! 2014 is the year of unprecedented gains for Bitcoin. We're off to a rocky start, but big media attention has historically always resulted in a new stream of buyers. The MtGox debacle is arguably even bigger than the Silk Road bust. It's truly a gift to maintain this kind of media presence over an extended period. Bitcoin is getting untold sums of free publicity, and extremely high quality publicity at that. Big media attention is the best kind.
But, because of this, and because Putin's finger could theoretically slide near the "BTC" button, it means we can absolutely push the boundaries of Bitcoin in 2014. Regulators be damned! 2014 is the year of the Dark Wallet, CoinJoin, mixers, and distributed cryptocurrency exchanges. Just remember, if the West makes a fuss about it, they're fucked! HA! If they don't, then we win. This is a win-win.
John Kerry just blessed Bitcoin with the opportunity to call the regulators' bluff. Thanks to John Kerry, mixers are coming. P2P Bitcoin stock trading is coming. And we can do it all right under the nose of regulators.
submitted by PacificAvenue to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

Free Silk Road Admins  Bitcoin Talk Show #23 Square accepts Bitcoins -- Silk Road: Bitcoin is not Money -- Trezor Hardware Bitcoin Wallet Bitcoin Lives! -- The New Silk Roads -- Bitcoin over Everest Tatiana Moroz - Bitcoin, The War on Drugs, The Silk Road Website & More Bitcoin Falls on Silk Road Sale -- CEX.io 51% Attack Nonsense -- TORcoin

Easy Steps to making use of the most effective Bitcoin Mixer of 2020. Probably one of the most compelling factor for MCM being the most effective mixer of 2020 is the steady understanding curve of using this mixer. It has among the most simple and also streamlined user interface, and any individual might mix their Bitcoins in 4 simple actions: Using a bitcoin mixer is the only way to make this happen. ... You don’t have to be involved in illegal activities or Silk Road trading to want to scrub the ties off of your coins. Easily traceable bitcoin trails are more than just a way for the taxman to get at you, they provide all the information necessary for hackers and big data to ... Bitcoin [BTC] rose to popularity in its early days mainly attributing to its use on the silk road. The anonymous currency was perceived as the choice exchange for conducting illicit activities. However, the KYC and AML laws, along with strict surveillance, have reduced its use in illegal activities considerably. So much so, that recent analyses Haney is said to have laundered millions of dollars worth of bitcoin he accrued from drug deals on the infamous and now-defunct Silk Road dark web marketplace. Authorities seized $19 million USD worth of bitcoin from the Ohio native as part of his Thursday arrest. This makes clear the connection between the old Silk Road portal and Bitcoin blender services such as Bitcoin Fog, which is one of the oldest crypto mixer. Anonymity: Many sites offer the Bitcoin mixer service, such as BitLaunder (which calls itself the perfect Bitcoin mixer), Bitcoin Fog, and Helix by Grams.

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Free Silk Road Admins Bitcoin Talk Show #23

We take a look at all sides of the recent Bitcoin crash & the fallout for the Miners. The Silk Road trial gets underway, with a major problem Plus how CISPA 3.0 could create a cyber police state. The next video is starting stop. Loading... Here are Today's MadBits: Bitcoin prices are in outer ... Skip navigation Sign in. Search. Loading... Close. This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue. Remove all; Ex-agent in Silk Road probe gets more prison time for bitcoin theft. (Reuters) - A former U.S. Secret Service agent sentenced to nearly six years in prison f... Support MadBitcoins: 1PtAdf3LbwrPfX87dQ8TMuKEzuMUZtg1z1 April 2, 2014 -- Las Vegas, Nevada -- MadBitcoins: Twist the Cap to Refreshment. Madbitcoins Subscriber Index ...

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